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\title{\bf PVS Bibliography}
\author{John Rushby\\
Computer Science Laboratory\\
SRI International\\
Menlo Park CA 94025 USA
\\ \mbox{ }\\
Email: {\tt pvs-request@csl.sri.com}
\\WWW: \url{http://www.csl.sri.com/pvs.html}
}
\begin{document}
\maketitle
This bibliography lists most of the publications that I am aware of
concerning the development and application of the PVS verification
system and its predecessors. The files used to create this report, including
the \BibTeX\ bibliography, are available at
\url{http://www.csl.sri.com/pvs-bib.html}. PVS users are
encouraged to use the \BibTeX\ entries from these files, which are as
accurate, complete, and up to date as I can make them.
I have limited this list to publications that should be available in
a university or research library. For this reason, I have omitted
citations to conference proceedings that were not issued by a
technical society or commercial publisher, unless they are on the
Web; similarly, technical reports are cited only when they are widely
distributed (e.g., NASA), or where there is no other source and they
are are on the Web (or otherwise freely available, if they predate
the Web). Many of the journal and conference papers listed are
supported by technical reports that provide much more detail; I am
willing to add these if there is demand. Because papers are often
available on the web in advance of the journal or proceedings in which
they will appear, I now include such papers and mark them ``to appear.''
Most of the publications later than about 1990, and some earlier
ones, are available on the Web from
\url{http://www.csl.sri.com/fm-papers.html} (for SRI papers) or
\url{http://www.csl.sri.com/pvs-users.html} (for others); hard copies
of all these papers are available at SRI.
Many papers are archived at the NECI Scientific Literature Digital Library
\url{http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/cs} and at
The Hypatia Digital Library at \url{http://hypatia.dcs.qmw.ac.uk/} or
can be found on the authors' home pages, which can usually be tracked
down using a search engine such as \url{www.google.com}.
Please keep me informed of new papers (or forgotten historical ones)
that should be added to this collection, and of any inaccuracies.
\subsection*{History}
PVS is the most recent in a line of specification languages, theorem
provers, and verification systems developed at SRI that goes back over
20 years. Early systems included the Jovial Verification
System~\cite{jovial:pv} (Jovial was a language based on Algol 58, a
precursor to the more famous Algol 60, that was used by the US Air
Force), and the Hierarchical Development Methodology
(HDM)~\cite{Robinson&Levitt,
HDM:Handbook,
Spitzen:example}.
HDM had a ``security analyzer''~\cite{Feiertag:Tool}
based on information flow~\cite{FLR77} that was used in the
verification of the Honeywell SCOMP~\cite{Benzel:scomp-eval,
Silverman83} (the first computer to gain the
NSA's A1~\cite{Criteria} rating) and several other
secure systems~\cite{Lindsay88:Regency,
Regency88}.
The HDM security flow analyzer used the Boyer-Moore theorem prover, much of
whose early development was performed at SRI~\cite{Boyer-Moore79}.
A parallel development was Shostak's Theorem Prover STP~\cite{STP},
which was based on his decision procedures~\cite{Shostak:sup-inf,
Shostak:equality,
Shostak:arithmetic,
Shostak:residues,
Shostak:combination} and used in the analysis of some aspects of the
SIFT flight control computer~\cite{Weinstock80,
SIFT-design}\footnote{Although the SIFT verification was a
significant accomplishment at the time, the paper describing
it~\cite{Sift-verif} leaves the impression that the full operating
system was verified, as opposed to some properties of its design.
This led to severe criticism by a NASA peer
review~\cite{SIFT:review}.} and early experiments in hardware
verification~\cite{Shostak:circuits}.
HDM and STP were the main design influences on ``Enhanced HDM'' ({\sc
Ehdm}), whose development began in 1983.
{\sc Ehdm} introduced the higher-order specification language with
theory-level (they are called ``modules'' in {\sc Ehdm})
parameterization that provides much of the foundation for the PVS language.
{\sc Ehdm} was operational
by 1985~\cite{Kemmerer:assess,
Melliar-Smith&Rushby,
Rushby:HDM} and was further developed through the following
decade~\cite{EHDM:Overview88,
EHDM:tutorial}.\footnote{{\sc Ehdm}
has some capabilities currently lacking in PVS: for example,
hierarchical development based on theory interpretations, imperative
program verification using a small subset of a Pascal-like language,
a superior prover interface (to an interactive prover derived from
that of PVS) and more capable (though slower) arithmetic decision
procedures. However, it lacks some of the linguistic capabilities of
PVS: for example, dependent typing, abstract data types, inductive
relations, and several type constructors.
{\sc Ehdm} continues to be available,
but its distribution is controlled by the US Government.}
Verification of fault-tolerant algorithms
and architectures provided the biggest applications of {\sc
Ehdm}~\cite{DiVito-DCCA-3,
Miner93,
Rushby92:OM,
Rushby93:masking,
Rushby94:icah,
Rushby&vonHenke93,
Shankar:clocks:Nijmegen}, and some small experiments in hardware
verification~\cite{Butler-Sjogren91,
Joyce&all:compcon}
were also performed.
PVS was started in late 1990 as an SRI-funded research program to
prototype ideas for an interactive prover for {\sc Ehdm} and the
design of a ``next generation'' verification system (hence its
original name---``{\em Prototype\/} Verification System''). SRI made
the first version of PVS freely available in 1993~\cite{PVS:tutorial}
and it proved so popular that we have continued to develop it ever
since (first with SRI IR\&D funds, and later with additional support
from NASA, NRL, AFOSR, ARPA, and NSF).
\subsection*{Documentation and Availability}
PVS is freely available under license from SRI\@. Information,
examples, papers, documentation, and the system itself are available
from the PVS home page at \url{http://www.csl.sri.com/pvs.html} and
the CSL ftp server at \url{ftp://ftp.csl.sri.com/pub/pvs}, and from
mirror sites in England, France, Germany, and Japan.\footnote{These
sites are \url{ftp://ftp.cs.york.ac.uk/pub/pvs} at the University of
York, England; \url{ftp://ftp.ibp.fr/pub/pvs} at the University of
Paris VI, France; \url{ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-ulm.de/pub/KI/pvs} at
the University of Ulm, Germany; and
\url{ftp://nicosia.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/pub/misc/pvs} at Tokyo
University, Japan.}
The PVS system is described briefly in three system
descriptions~\cite{PVS96:CAV,PVS-CADE92,Shankar96:FMCAD}
and an experience report \cite{Owre-etal98:FM-TRENDS}
and fully documented in
separate manuals for the language~\cite{PVS:language},
prover~\cite{PVS:prover},
system~\cite{PVS:userguide},
and
semantics~\cite{PVS-Semantics:TR}.
Some of the motivation and design decisions for PVS are described
in~\cite{Owre95:prolegomena}, and the utility of its type system is
argued in~\cite{Rushby98:TSE,Shankar&Owre:WADT99}.
Tutorials provide general introductions to PVS~\cite{Butler:PVS-tut,
WIFT-Tut,
Rushby&Stringer-Calvert95},
plus more specialized treatments for hardware~\cite{Owre94:TPCD},
abstract data types~\cite{PVS-ADT:TR},
tabular and requirements
specifications~\cite{Owre95:tables}, and
distributed systems~\cite{FORTE97-Tut,Rushby00:Movep2k}.
General introductions to formal
methods, with PVS examples, are provided by the NASA Guidebook
series~\cite{NASA-GB1,NASA-GB2}.
\subsection*{Methodology and Technology}
Some of the philosophical and methodological ideas behind PVS and its
applications are described in~\cite{Cyrluk&Srivas95:iccd,
Dill&Rushby96,
Rushby92:repsa,
Rushby95:ZUM,
Rushby96:CAV,
Rushby96:FSTTCS,
Rushby97:isre,
Rushby:FM99,
Shankar85,
Shankar:notes,
Shankar:book,
Shankar:FTRTFT96},
while issues in the application of formal methods to safety-critical
systems are described in
\cite{NASA-GB1,
Rushby:FAA-full,
Rushby94:Taxonomy,
Rushby:FAA-short}
and hardware verification is discussed in~\cite{Srivas97:chapter}.
The theorem-proving techniques employed in PVS are described
in~\cite{Cyrluk96:DP,
Cyrluk-etal97:CAV,
Cyrluk94:gtl,
Cyrluk94:TPCD,
Moeller98:FMCAD,
Tiwari-etal00:CADE},
and their integration with model checking and with tabular
specifications are described in~\cite{Rajan95:CAV}
and~\cite{pvs-tables:tacas97},
respectively. Use of a decision procedure for WS1S within PVS is
described in~\cite{Owre&Ruess00:CAV}
Experimental support for efficient evaluation and its
use to support reflection
in PVS are described in~\cite{Pfab98:tools,
vonHenke98:tphols}, while the very efficient evaluator built-in to PVS
2.3 is described in~\cite{shankar99:eval}.
Techniques and tools to support automated generation of abstractions
and invariants in PVS
are
described in~\cite{Bensalem96:CAV,
Bensalem98:CAV,
Abdulla:CAV99,
Rusu&Singerman99,
Graf96:CAV,
Saidi96,
Saidi97:CAV,
Saidi&Graf97:CAV,
Saidi97:LFM,
Saidi&Shankar:CAV99,
Saidi00:SAS,
Shankar00:ASM,
Shankar00:CONCUR}
and the integration of these capabilities in extensions to PVS such
as SAL and InVeST are described in
\cite{
Bensalem98:InVeSt,
SALoverview00:LFM,
Rushby98:ICFEM,
Rushby:SPIN99,
Rushby00:Forte,
Rushby00:HASE}.
Comparisons between PVS and ACL2 treatments of an interactive
consistency algorithm~\cite{Young97:IC}, and between PVS and HOL
specifications of the IEEE 854 floating-point
standard~\cite{Miner95:HOL} are available, while Mike Gordon provides a
discussion of PVS from a HOL perspective~\cite{Gordon95:PVS}
and David Griffioen and Marieke Huisman compare PVS and Isabelle/HOL
\cite{Griffioen98:tphols}.
Jan Friso Groote, Fran\,{c}ois Monin and Jaco van de Pol
provide a tutorial on protocol and distributed systems verification
that considers Isabelle, Coq, and PVS, and makes some
comparison between the systems \cite{Groote-etal98:CONCUR},
while
Kern and Greenstreet survey several methods for hardware
verification, including PVS
\cite{Kern99:todaes}.
Heinrich Rust presents a PVS treatment for an ``invoicing'' example
used in the comparison of many systems~\cite{Rust98}.
Matt Wilding describes an approach, derived from those used with
Nqthm and ACL2, for developing robust proofs of machine code
programs~\cite{Wilding97:LFM}.
Georg Droschl compares some aspects of PVS and VDM on an
industrially-motivated example~\cite{Droschl:IFMW99,
Droschl:FM99}.
Merriam and Harrison provide an examination of interface issues, and
compare PVS with two other systems~\cite{Merriam96}, while
Archer and Heitmeyer describe using PVS to produce ``human-style''
proofs~\cite{Archer&Heitmeyer97:TPHOLS,Archer98:UITP}. Issues in introducing
formal methods, including PVS, to students and engineers are discussed
by Knight et al~\cite{Knight97:LFM}.
\subsection*{Applications}
PVS has been applied to classical topics in mathematical
analysis (with applicaiton to computer algebra systems)~\cite{Dutertre96,
Gottliebsen00:TPHOLS},
to the modeling of process calculi~\cite{Basten&Hooman99,
Schamschurko98}
and transition systems~\cite{Griffioen98:CAV,
Pnueli98:FTRTFT},
to the specification of abstract datatypes~\cite{Devillers-etal97,
Hensel&Jacobs97,Hensel98:JLC}, classes in object-oriented
languages~\cite{Hensel-etal98,Huisman-etal99:ECOOP,Jacobs98:OOPSLA,Huisman&Jacobs00:TPHOLS},
and Java programs~\cite{Huisman:PhD,Huisman&Jacobs00:FASE,vandenBerg-etal00:WADT},
to critical algorithms for fault tolerance in
automobile and aircraft control
systems~\cite{Lincoln&Rushby93:CAV,
Lincoln&Rushby93:FTCS,
Lincoln&Rushby94:FTP,
Pfeifer99:DCCA,
Pfeifer00:FORTE,
Rushby99:TSE,
Rushby00:CAV,
Schwier98:FTRTFT,
WalterLincolnSuri97},
to partitioning in these systems~\cite{DiVito:partitioningCR,
diVito99:DCCA,
Wilding99:DCCA}
to software requirements and software design for
aircraft~\cite{Butler96:rqts,
Dutertre&Stavridou97,
Dutertre97:LFM} and for
manned~\cite{
Crow&DiVito98:tosem,
Easterbrook-etal98,
HAC-study,
DiVito96,
DiVito00:STTT,
GPS-study,
Hamilton-etal95,
Hamilton-etal95-2}
and interplanetary~\cite{Ampo&Lutz95,
Lutz&Ampo94,Lutz97:LFM} spacecraft,
to aircraft trajectories~\cite{Carreno&Munoz00:TPHOLS,
Carreno&Munoz00:DASC}
to protection systems for nuclear power plants \cite{Lawford-etal00:AMAST,
Koo-etal99},
to command and control~\cite{vandePol98},
to issues in computer security~\cite{Dean97,
Hoffman98:CAV,
Peri96}, active networks~\cite{Dieckman98},
and
cryptographic protocols~\cite{Dutertre&Schneider97,
Millen:FMSP99,
Monniaux99:CSFW,
Ruess&Millen00:FMCS},
to
operating systems~\cite{Gopi98:FSTTCS},
distributed algorithms~\cite{Couturier98:CAV,
Chkliaev99,
Chkliaev99:AE,
Chkliaev00:ICFEM,
Couturier98:IFMW,
Devillers00:FMSD,
Glusman&Katz:CAV99,
Havelund:FMPPTA99,
Hooman98:EAS,
Jackson98:tphols,
Mokkedem00:FMSD,
Penix98:fmsp,
Umamageswaran98:JSA},
real-time and scheduling~\cite{Alagar-etal99:RTAS,
Alborghetti97:FSE,
Archer&Heitmeyer96,
AHrtssWIP96,
Bun96:ASCI,
Bun97:ASCI,
deBoer96:ftrtft,
DuBois97:isre,
dutertre99b,
Dutertre&Stavridou00:DASC,
Dutertre00:RTSS,
Fowler&Wellings96,
Fowler97:RTSS,
Hooman94,
Hooman96:RPC,
Hooman97:AMAST,
Hooman97:compos,
Kolano99:ARTS,
Kolano-etal00:FASE,
Muthiayen00,
Shankar93:CAV,
Skakkebaek94:thesis,
Skakkebaek&Shankar94},
reactive~\cite{Kellomaki97},
and hybrid systems~\cite{AHhart97,
Henzinger&Rusu98,
Hooman96:boiler},
to embedded systems \cite{Bloo-etal00:SAC,
deJong00:ECBS,
vandePol-etal99:IFM}, distributed
systems~\cite{deBoer&Hulst96,
Chernyskhovsky:FMPPTA99,
Frey99:HICSS,
Hooman98:TOOLS96,
Kellomaki95,
Kellomaki96:tphols,
Lesens&Saidi97,
Shankar93:lazy,
vanHulst:thesis}
and protocols~\cite{Hooman95,
Havelund&Shankar96,
Khune-etal97,
Mokkedem&Leonard00:TPHOLS,
Rusinowitch-etal00:CAV},
to software architecture \cite{Herbert-etal:FM99},
program development~\cite{Hooman97,
Levy&Trilling:FM99,
Verhoeven&Backhouse:FM99},
software development
steps~\cite{Behnke98:TOOLS96,
Dold95,
Dold:PhD,
Shankar:MPC95,
Shankar:SCP96}
and refinement~\cite{Jacobs97,Jacobs97:AMAST,Jackson00:TPHOLS,Knappmann96},
to compilers~\cite{K-HButh95,
Dold-etal97,
DGVZ98,
Dold-etal98:STTT,
Dold&Vialard99,
Stringer-Calvert97,
Stringer-Calvert98:thesis,
Wahab:UWARWICK:CS-RR-354,
Wahab98},
to hardware
design~\cite{Arons99:VLSI,
Arons&Pnueli00:TACAS,
Cyrluk96:FMCAD,
Cyrluk97:ICFEM,
Damm&Pnueli97,
Fisler94:TPCD,
Gopalakrishnan-etal97,
Greve98:FMCAD,
Hardin98:CAV,
Hosabettu98:CAV,
Hosabettu:CAV99,
Hosabettu:CHARME99,
Hosabettu-etal00:CAV,
Johnson94:TPCD,
Johnson&Miner97,
Leathrum97:LFM,
Li-etal97,
Miner&Johnson96,
Miner94:circuit,
Miner96:FMCAD,
Miller&Srivas95,
Pnueli98:FMCAD,
Ruess96:CAV,
Ruess99:FMSD,
Sree97:AMAST,
Sree98:todaes,
Srivas&Miller95:chdl,
Srivas&Miller95:inbook,
Srivas&Miller96:FMSD}
and
synthesis~\cite{Mansouri00:FMSD,
Naren98:ICCD,
Naren98:tphols,
Sree94:Philips,
Sree95:chdl,
Sree:thesis},
to memory models and cache coherence
protocols~\cite{Nalumasu&Ganesh98,
Park:thesis,
Park&Dill96:PDS,
Park&Dill98:TCS},
to multimedia collaborations~\cite{Rajan95:multimedia},
to test generation~\cite{rbj00}
and to testing program visualization tools~\cite{Graham96},
to validating fault-tolerant real-time systems~\cite{Suri&Sinha98,
Sinha&Suri99:FTCS,
Sinha&Suri99:RTSS},
and to self-stabilization~\cite{Qadeer&Shankar98,
Kulkarni99:SSS}.
PVS has also been used to support other specification
notations including
Abstract State Machines (ASMs)~\cite{Gargantini&Riccobene00:ASM},
the B Method~\cite{Bodeveix-etal99,
Munoz&Rushby:FM99},
BON \cite{Paige&Ostroff:FM99},
Lustre~\cite{Bensalem99:DCCA},
Tabular methods~\cite{Rushby&Srivas:HOL93,
Heimdahl&Czerny96,
Heimdahl97:LFM,
Heimdahl97:ICFEM,
Czerny&Heimdahl:ASE98,
Heimdahl98:computer},
VDM~\cite{Agerholm96,
Agerholm97:VDMbook,
Maharaj97:ASE},
and VSPEC~\cite{Alexander-etal:FM99}, and in conjunction with
computer algebra systems~\cite{Adams-etal:CADE99,
Adams-etal:ISSAC99},
and in combination with other tools~\cite{Buth98:TOOLS96,
Buth98:tools,
Buth97:AMAST,
Corbett-etal00:ICSE}.
\bibliographystyle{unsrt}
\begin{thebibliography}{100}
\bibitem{jovial:pv}
B.~Elspas, M.~Green, M.~Moriconi, and R.~Shostak.
\newblock A {JOVIAL} verifier.
\newblock Technical report, Computer Science Laboratory, SRI International,
January 1979.
\bibitem{Robinson&Levitt}
Lawrence Robinson and Karl~N. Levitt.
\newblock Proof techniques for hierarchically structured programs.
\newblock {\em Communications of the ACM}, 20(4):271--283, April 1976.
\bibitem{HDM:Handbook}
L.~Robinson, K.~N. Levitt, and B.~A. Silverberg.
\newblock {\em The {HDM} Handbook}.
\newblock Computer Science Laboratory, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, June
1979.
\newblock Three Volumes.
\bibitem{Spitzen:example}
Jay~M. Spitzen, Karl~N. Levitt, and Lawrence Robinson.
\newblock An example of hierarchical design and proof.
\newblock {\em Communications of the ACM}, 21(12):1064--1075, December 1978.
\bibitem{Feiertag:Tool}
R.~J. Feiertag.
\newblock A technique for proving specifications are multilevel secure.
\newblock Technical Report CSL-109, Computer Science Laboratory, SRI
International, Menlo Park, CA, January 1980.
\bibitem{FLR77}
R.~J. Feiertag, K.~N. Levitt, and L.~Robinson.
\newblock Proving multilevel security of a system design.
\newblock In {\em Sixth ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles}, pages
57--65, November 1977.
\bibitem{Benzel:scomp-eval}
Terry~Vickers Benzel.
\newblock Analysis of a kernel verification.
\newblock In {\em Proceedings of the Symposium on Security and Privacy}, pages
125--131, Oakland, CA, April 1984. IEEE Computer Society.
\bibitem{Silverman83}
J.~M. Silverman.
\newblock Reflections on the verification of the security of an operating
system kernel.
\newblock In {\em Ninth ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles}, pages
143--154, Bretton Woods, NH, October 1983.
\newblock (ACM Operating Systems Review, Vol.\ 17, No.\ 5).
\bibitem{Criteria}
Department of Defense.
\newblock {\em Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation
Criteria}, December 1985.
\newblock DOD 5200.28-STD (supersedes CSC-STD-001-83).
\bibitem{Lindsay88:Regency}
Kenneth~S. Lindsay.
\newblock A taxonomy of the causes of proof failures in applications using the
{HDM} methodology.
\newblock In {\em Fourth Aerospace Computer Security Applications Conference},
pages 419--423, Orlando, FL, December 1988. IEEE Computer Society.
\newblock Reprinted in~\cite[pp.~79--83]{Compass89}.
\bibitem{Regency88}
Bill Smith, Cynthia Reese, Kenneth~S. Lindsay, and Brian Crane.
\newblock A description of a formal verification and validation {(FVV)}
process.
\newblock In {\em Fourth Aerospace Computer Security Applications Conference},
pages 401--408, Orlando, FL, December 1988. IEEE Computer Society.
\newblock Reprinted in~\cite[pp.~71--78]{Compass89}.
\bibitem{Boyer-Moore79}
R.~S. Boyer and J~S. Moore.
\newblock {\em A Computational Logic}.
\newblock Academic Press, New York, NY, 1979.
\bibitem{STP}
R.~E. Shostak, R.~Schwartz, and P.~M. Melliar-Smith.
\newblock {STP}: A mechanized logic for specification and verification.
\newblock In D.~Loveland, editor, {\em 6th International Conference on
Automated Deduction (CADE)}, volume 138 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
Science}, New York, NY, 1982. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Shostak:sup-inf}
Robert~E. Shostak.
\newblock On the {SUP-INF} method for proving {Presburger} formulas.
\newblock {\em Journal of the ACM}, 24(4):529--543, October 1977.
\bibitem{Shostak:equality}
Robert~E. Shostak.
\newblock An algorithm for reasoning about equality.
\newblock {\em Communications of the ACM}, 21(7):583--585, July 1978.
\bibitem{Shostak:arithmetic}
Robert~E. Shostak.
\newblock A practical decision procedure for arithmetic with function symbols.
\newblock {\em Journal of the ACM}, 26(2):351--360, April 1979.
\bibitem{Shostak:residues}
Robert~E. Shostak.
\newblock Deciding linear inequalities by computing loop residues.
\newblock {\em Journal of the ACM}, 28(4):769--779, October 1981.
\bibitem{Shostak:combination}
Robert~E. Shostak.
\newblock Deciding combinations of theories.
\newblock {\em Journal of the ACM}, 31(1):1--12, January 1984.
\bibitem{Weinstock80}
Charles~B. Weinstock.
\newblock {SIFT}: System design and implementation.
\newblock In {\em Fault Tolerant Computing Symposium 10}, pages 75--77, Kyoto,
Japan, October 1980. IEEE Computer Society.
\newblock Reprinted in~\cite[pp.\ 29--30]{FTCS-highlights}.
\bibitem{SIFT-design}
John~H. Wensley, Leslie Lamport, Jack Goldberg, Milton~W. Green, Karl~N.
Levitt, P.~M. Melliar-Smith, Robert~E. Shostak, and Charles~B. Weinstock.
\newblock {SIFT}: Design and analysis of a fault-tolerant computer for aircraft
control.
\newblock {\em Proceedings of the IEEE}, 66(10):1240--1255, October 1978.
\bibitem{Sift-verif}
P.~M. Melliar-Smith and R.~L. Schwartz.
\newblock Formal specification and verification of {SIFT}: A fault-tolerant
flight control system.
\newblock {\em IEEE Transactions on Computers}, C-31(7):616--630, July 1982.
\bibitem{SIFT:review}
NASA Conference Publication 2377.
\newblock {\em Peer Review of a Formal Verification/Design Proof Methodology},
July 1983.
\bibitem{Shostak:circuits}
Robert~E. Shostak.
\newblock Formal verification of circuit designs.
\newblock In T.~Uehara and M.~Barbacci, editors, {\em Computer Hardware
Description Languages}, pages 13--29. North-Holland, 1983.
\bibitem{Kemmerer:assess}
Richard~A. Kemmerer.
\newblock Verification assessment study final report.
\newblock Technical Report C3-CR01-86, National Computer Security Center, Ft.\
Meade, MD, 1986.
\newblock 5 Volumes (Overview, Gypsy, Affirm, FDM, and {\sc Ehdm}). US
distribution only.
\bibitem{Melliar-Smith&Rushby}
P.~Michael Melliar-Smith and John Rushby.
\newblock The {Enhanced HDM} system for specification and verification.
\newblock In {\em Proc.\ VerkShop III}, pages 41--43, Watsonville, CA, February
1985.
\newblock Published as ACM Software Engineering Notes, Vol.\ 10, No.\ 4, Aug.\
85.
\bibitem{Rushby:HDM}
John Rushby.
\newblock The security model of {Enhanced HDM}.
\newblock In {\em Proceedings 7th DoD/NBS Computer Security Initiative
Conference}, pages 120--136, Gaithersburg, MD, September 1984.
\bibitem{EHDM:Overview88}
F.~W. von Henke, J.~S. Crow, R.~Lee, J.~M. Rushby, and R.~A. Whitehurst.
\newblock The {{\sc Ehdm}} verification environment: An overview.
\newblock In {\em Proceedings 11th National Computer Security Conference},
pages 147--155, Baltimore, MD, October 1988. NBS/NCSC.
\bibitem{EHDM:tutorial}
John Rushby, Friedrich von Henke, and Sam Owre.
\newblock An introduction to formal specification and verification using {{\sc
Ehdm}}.
\newblock Technical Report SRI-CSL-91-2, Computer Science Laboratory, SRI
International, Menlo Park, CA, February 1991.
\bibitem{DiVito-DCCA-3}
Ben~L. {Di Vito} and Ricky~W. Butler.
\newblock Formal techniques for synchronized fault-tolerant systems.
\newblock In C.~E. Landwehr, B.~Randell, and L.~Simoncini, editors, {\em
Dependable Computing for Critical Applications---3}, volume~8 of {\em
Dependable Computing and Fault-Tolerant Systems}, pages 163--188.
Springer-Verlag, Vienna, Austria, September 1992.
\bibitem{Miner93}
Paul~S. Miner.
\newblock Verification of fault-tolerant clock synchronization systems.
\newblock NASA Technical Paper 3349, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA,
November 1993.
\bibitem{Rushby92:OM}
John Rushby.
\newblock Formal verification of an {Oral Messages} algorithm for interactive
consistency.
\newblock Technical Report SRI-CSL-92-1, Computer Science Laboratory, SRI
International, Menlo Park, CA, July 1992.
\newblock Also available as NASA Contractor Report 189704, October 1992.
\bibitem{Rushby93:masking}
John Rushby.
\newblock A fault-masking and transient-recovery model for digital
flight-control systems.
\newblock In Jan Vytopil, editor, {\em Formal Techniques in Real-Time and
Fault-Tolerant Systems}, Kluwer International Series in Engineering and
Computer Science, chapter~5, pages 109--136. Kluwer, Boston, Dordecht,
London, 1993.
\bibitem{Rushby94:icah}
John Rushby.
\newblock A formally verified algorithm for clock synchronization under a
hybrid fault model.
\newblock In {\em Thirteenth ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed
Computing}, pages 304--313, Los Angeles, CA, August 1994. Association for
Computing Machinery.
\newblock Also available as NASA Contractor Report 198289.
\bibitem{Rushby&vonHenke93}
John Rushby and Friedrich von Henke.
\newblock Formal verification of algorithms for critical systems.
\newblock {\em IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering}, 19(1):13--23,
January 1993.
\bibitem{Shankar:clocks:Nijmegen}
Natarajan Shankar.
\newblock Mechanical verification of a generalized protocol for {Byzantine}
fault-tolerant clock synchronization.
\newblock In J.~Vytopil, editor, {\em Formal Techniques in Real-Time and
Fault-Tolerant Systems}, volume 571 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
Science}, pages 217--236, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, January 1992.
Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Butler-Sjogren91}
Ricky~W. Butler and Jon~A. Sjogren.
\newblock Formal design verification of digital circuitry.
\newblock {\em Reliability Engineering and System Safety}, 32:67--93, 1991.
\bibitem{Joyce&all:compcon}
J.~Joyce, E.~Liu, J.~Rushby, N.~Shankar, R.~Suaya, and F.~von Henke.
\newblock From formal verification to silicon compilation.
\newblock In {\em IEEE Compcon}, pages 450--455, San Francisco, CA, February
1991.
\bibitem{PVS:tutorial}
N.~Shankar, S.~Owre, and J.~M. Rushby.
\newblock {\em PVS Tutorial}.
\newblock Computer Science Laboratory, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA,
February 1993.
\newblock Also appears in Tutorial Notes, {\em Formal Methods Europe '93:
Industrial-Strength Formal Methods}, pages 357--406, Odense, Denmark, April
1993.
\bibitem{PVS96:CAV}
S.~Owre, S.~Rajan, J.M. Rushby, N.~Shankar, and M.K. Srivas.
\newblock {PVS}: Combining specification, proof checking, and model checking.
\newblock In Rajeev Alur and Thomas~A. Henzinger, editors, {\em Computer-Aided
Verification, CAV '96}, volume 1102 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
Science}, pages 411--414, New Brunswick, NJ, July/August 1996.
Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{PVS-CADE92}
S.~Owre, J.~M. Rushby, and N.~Shankar.
\newblock {PVS}: A prototype verification system.
\newblock In Deepak Kapur, editor, {\em 11th International Conference on
Automated Deduction (CADE)}, volume 607 of {\em Lecture Notes in Artificial
Intelligence}, pages 748--752, Saratoga, NY, June 1992. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Shankar96:FMCAD}
N.~Shankar.
\newblock {PVS}: Combining specification, proof checking, and model checking.
\newblock In Mandayam Srivas and Albert Camilleri, editors, {\em Formal Methods
in Computer-Aided Design (FMCAD '96)}, volume 1166 of {\em Lecture Notes in
Computer Science}, pages 257--264, Palo Alto, CA, November 1996.
Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Owre-etal98:FM-TRENDS}
Sam Owre, John Rushby, N.~Shankar, and David Stringer-Calvert.
\newblock {PVS:} an experience report.
\newblock In Dieter Hutter, Werner Stephan, Paolo Traverso, and Markus Ullman,
editors, {\em Applied Formal Methods---FM-Trends 98}, volume 1641 of {\em
Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, pages 338--345, Boppard, Germany, October
1998. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{PVS:language}
S.~Owre, N.~Shankar, J.~M. Rushby, and D.~W.~J. Stringer-Calvert.
\newblock {\em PVS Language Reference}.
\newblock Computer Science Laboratory, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA,
September 1999.
\bibitem{PVS:prover}
N.~Shankar, S.~Owre, J.~M. Rushby, and D.~W.~J. Stringer-Calvert.
\newblock {\em PVS Prover Guide}.
\newblock Computer Science Laboratory, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA,
September 1999.
\bibitem{PVS:userguide}
S.~Owre, N.~Shankar, J.~M. Rushby, and D.~W.~J. Stringer-Calvert.
\newblock {\em PVS System Guide}.
\newblock Computer Science Laboratory, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA,
September 1999.
\bibitem{PVS-Semantics:TR}
Sam Owre and Natarajan Shankar.
\newblock The formal semantics of {PVS}.
\newblock Technical Report SRI-CSL-97-2, Computer Science Laboratory, SRI
International, Menlo Park, CA, August 1997.
\bibitem{Owre95:prolegomena}
Sam Owre, John Rushby, Natarajan Shankar, and Friedrich von Henke.
\newblock Formal verification for fault-tolerant architectures: Prolegomena to
the design of {PVS}.
\newblock {\em IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering}, 21(2):107--125,
February 1995.
\bibitem{Rushby98:TSE}
John Rushby, Sam Owre, and N.~Shankar.
\newblock Subtypes for specifications: Predicate subtyping in {PVS}.
\newblock {\em IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering}, 24(9):709--720,
September 1998.
\bibitem{Shankar&Owre:WADT99}
Natarajan Shankar and Sam Owre.
\newblock Principles and pragmatics of subtyping in {PVS}.
\newblock In Didier Bert, Christine Choppy, and Peter Mosses, editors, {\em
Recent Trends in Algebraic Development Techniques, {WADT '99}}, volume 1827
of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, pages 37--52, Toulouse, France,
September 1999. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Butler:PVS-tut}
Ricky~W. Butler.
\newblock An elementary tutorial on formal specification and verification using
{PVS 2}.
\newblock NASA Technical Memorandum 108991, NASA Langley Research Center,
Hampton, VA, June 1993.
\newblock Revised June 1995. Available, with PVS specification files, at
\url{http://atb-www.larc.nasa.gov/ftp/larc/PVS-tutorial}; use only files
marked ``revised.''.
\bibitem{WIFT-Tut}
Judy Crow, Sam Owre, John Rushby, Natarajan Shankar, and Mandayam Srivas.
\newblock A tutorial introduction to {PVS}.
\newblock Presented at WIFT '95: Workshop on Industrial-Strength Formal
Specification Techniques, Boca Raton, Florida, April 1995.
\newblock Available, with specification files, at
\url{http://www.csl.sri.com/wift-tutorial.html}.
\bibitem{Rushby&Stringer-Calvert95}
John Rushby and David W.~J. Stringer-Calvert.
\newblock A less elementary tutorial for the {PVS} specification and
verification system.
\newblock Technical Report SRI-CSL-95-10, Computer Science Laboratory, SRI
International, Menlo Park, CA, June 1995.
\newblock Revised, July 1996. Available, with specification files, at
\url{http://www.csl.sri.com/csl-95-10.html}.
\bibitem{Owre94:TPCD}
S.~Owre, J.~M. Rushby, N.~Shankar, and M.~K. Srivas.
\newblock A tutorial on using {PVS} for hardware verification.
\newblock In Ramayya Kumar and Thomas Kropf, editors, {\em Theorem Provers in
Circuit Design ({TPCD} '94)}, volume 910 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
Science}, pages 258--279, Bad Herrenalb, Germany, September 1994.
Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{PVS-ADT:TR}
Sam Owre and Natarajan Shankar.
\newblock Abstract datatypes in {PVS}.
\newblock Technical Report SRI-CSL-93-9R, Computer Science Laboratory, SRI
International, Menlo Park, CA, December 1993.
\newblock Extensively revised June 1997; Also available as NASA Contractor
Report CR-97-206264.
\bibitem{Owre95:tables}
Sam Owre, John Rushby, and Natarajan Shankar.
\newblock Analyzing tabular and state-transition specifications in {PVS}.
\newblock Technical Report SRI-CSL-95-12, Computer Science Laboratory, SRI
International, Menlo Park, CA, July 1995.
\newblock Available, with specification files, at
\url{http://www.csl.sri.com/csl-95-12.html}. Also published as NASA
Contractor Report 201729.
\bibitem{FORTE97-Tut}
John Rushby.
\newblock Specification, proof checking, and model checking for protocols and
distributed systems with {PVS}.
\newblock Tutorial presented at {FORTE X/PSTV XVII '97}: Formal Description
Techniques and Protocol Specification, Testing and Verification, November
1997.
\newblock Available, with specification files, at
\url{http://www.csl.sri.com/forte97.html}.
\bibitem{Rushby00:Movep2k}
John Rushby.
\newblock Theorem proving for verification.
\newblock In Franck Cassez, editor, {\em Modelling and Verification of Parallel
Processes: MoVEP 2k}, Nantes, France, June 2000.
\newblock Tutorial presented at MoVEP: revised version to be published by
Springer LNCS.
\bibitem{NASA-GB1}
Judith Crow et~al.
\newblock {\em NASA Formal Methods Specification and Verification Guidebook for
Software and Computer Systems, Volume I: Planning and Technology Insertion}.
\newblock NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, Washington, DC, 1995.
\newblock Available at \url{http://eis.jpl.nasa.gov/quality/Formal_Methods/}.
\bibitem{NASA-GB2}
Judith Crow et~al.
\newblock {\em NASA Formal Methods Specification and Verification Guidebook for
Software and Computer Systems, Volume II: A Practitioner's Companion}.
\newblock NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, Washington, DC, 1997.
\newblock Available at \url{http://eis.jpl.nasa.gov/quality/Formal_Methods/}.
\bibitem{Cyrluk&Srivas95:iccd}
David~A. Cyrluk and Mandayam~K. Srivas.
\newblock Theorem proving: Not an esoteric diversion, but the unifying
framework for industrial verification.
\newblock In {\em International Conference on Computer Design: {VLSI} in
Computers and Processors ({ICCD} '95)}, pages 538--544, Austin, TX, October
1995. IEEE Computer Society.
\bibitem{Dill&Rushby96}
David~L. Dill and John Rushby.
\newblock Acceptance of formal methods: Lessons from hardware design.
\newblock {\em IEEE Computer}, 29(4):23--24, April 1996.
\newblock Part of~\cite{Saiedian96}.
\bibitem{Rushby92:repsa}
John Rushby.
\newblock Formal methods for dependable real-time systems.
\newblock In {\em International Symposium on Real-Time Embedded Processing for
Space Applications}, pages 355--366, Les Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, France,
November 1992. CNES, the French Space Agency.
\newblock Published by C\'{e}padu\`{e}s-\'{E}ditions, Toulouse, France.
\bibitem{Rushby95:ZUM}
John Rushby.
\newblock Mechanizing formal methods: Opportunities and challenges.
\newblock In Jonathan~P. Bowen and Michael~G. Hinchey, editors, {\em {ZUM} '95:
The {Z} Formal Specification Notation; 9th International Conference of {Z}
Users}, volume 967 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, pages
105--113, Limerick, Ireland, September 1995. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Rushby96:CAV}
John Rushby.
\newblock Automated deduction and formal methods.
\newblock In Rajeev Alur and Thomas~A. Henzinger, editors, {\em Computer-Aided
Verification, CAV '96}, volume 1102 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
Science}, pages 169--183, New Brunswick, NJ, July/August 1996.
Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Rushby96:FSTTCS}
John Rushby.
\newblock Mechanized formal methods: Progress and prospects.
\newblock In V.~Chandru and V.~Vinay, editors, {\em 16th Conference on the
Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science}, volume
1180 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, pages 43--51, Hyderabad,
India, December 1996. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Rushby97:isre}
John Rushby.
\newblock Calculating with requirements.
\newblock In {\em 3rd IEEE International Symposium on Requirements
Engineering}, pages 144--146, Annapolis, MD, January 1997. IEEE Computer
Society.
\bibitem{Rushby:FM99}
John Rushby.
\newblock Mechanized formal methods: Where next?
\newblock In Jeannette Wing and Jim Woodcock, editors, {\em FM99: The World
Congress in Formal Methods}, volume 1708 and 1709 of {\em Lecture Notes in
Computer Science}, pages 48--51, Toulouse, France, September 1999.
Springer-Verlag.
\newblock Pages 1--938 are in the first volume, 939--1872 in the second.
\bibitem{Shankar85}
N.~Shankar.
\newblock Towards mechanical metamathematics.
\newblock {\em Journal of Automated Reasoning}, 1(4):407--434, 1985.
\bibitem{Shankar:notes}
N.~Shankar.
\newblock Observations on the use of computers in proof checking.
\newblock {\em Notices of the American Mathematical Society}, 35(6):804--805,
July/August 1988.
\bibitem{Shankar:book}
N.~Shankar.
\newblock {\em Metamathematics, Machines, and {G{\"o}del's} Proof}.
\newblock Cambridge Tracts in Theoretical Computer Science. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1994.
\bibitem{Shankar:FTRTFT96}
Natarajan Shankar.
\newblock Unifying verification paradigms.
\newblock In Bengt Jonsson and Joachim Parrow, editors, {\em Formal Techniques
in Real-Time and Fault-Tolerant Systems}, volume 1135 of {\em Lecture Notes
in Computer Science}, pages 22--39, Uppsala, Sweden, September 1996.
Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Rushby:FAA-full}
John Rushby.
\newblock Formal methods and the certification of critical systems.
\newblock Technical Report SRI-CSL-93-7, Computer Science Laboratory, SRI
International, Menlo Park, CA, December 1993.
\newblock Also issued under the title {\em Formal Methods and Digital Systems
Validation for Airborne Systems\/} as NASA Contractor Report 4551, December
1993. A book based on this material will be published by Cambridge University
Press in 1998/9.
\bibitem{Rushby94:Taxonomy}
John Rushby.
\newblock Critical system properties: Survey and taxonomy.
\newblock {\em Reliability Engineering and System Safety}, 43(2):189--219,
1994.
\bibitem{Rushby:FAA-short}
John Rushby.
\newblock Formal methods and their role in the certification of critical
systems.
\newblock Technical Report SRI-CSL-95-1, Computer Science Laboratory, SRI
International, Menlo Park, CA, March 1995.
\newblock Also available as NASA Contractor Report 4673, August 1995, and
issued as part of the {\em FAA Digital Systems Validation Handbook} (the
guide for aircraft certification). Reprinted in~\cite[pp.~1--42]{Encress95}.
\bibitem{Srivas97:chapter}
Mandayam Srivas, Harald Rue{\ss}, and David Cyrluk.
\newblock Hardware verification using {PVS}.
\newblock In Thomas Kropf, editor, {\em Formal Hardware Verification: Methods
and Systems in Comparison}, volume 1287 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
Science}, pages 156--205. Springer-Verlag, 1997.
\bibitem{Cyrluk96:DP}
David Cyrluk, Patrick Lincoln, and N.~Shankar.
\newblock On {Shostak's} decision procedure for combinations of theories.
\newblock In M.~A. McRobbie and J.~K. Slaney, editors, {\em Automated
Deduction---{CADE-13}}, volume 1104 of {\em Lecture Notes in Artificial
Intelligence}, pages 463--477, New Brunswick, NJ, July/August 1996.
Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Cyrluk-etal97:CAV}
David Cyrluk, Harald Rue{\ss}, and Oliver M{\"o}ller.
\newblock An efficient decision procedure for the theory of fixed-sized
bit-vectors.
\newblock In Orna Grumberg, editor, {\em Computer-Aided Verification, CAV '97},
volume 1254 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, pages 60--71, Haifa,
Israel, June 1997. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Cyrluk94:gtl}
D.~Cyrluk and P.~Narendran.
\newblock Ground temporal logic---a logic for hardware verification.
\newblock In David Dill, editor, {\em Computer-Aided Verification, CAV '94},
volume 818 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, pages 247--259,
Stanford, CA, June 1994. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Cyrluk94:TPCD}
D.~Cyrluk, S.~Rajan, N.~Shankar, and M.~K. Srivas.
\newblock Effective theorem proving for hardware verification.
\newblock In Ramayya Kumar and Thomas Kropf, editors, {\em Theorem Provers in
Circuit Design ({TPCD} '94)}, volume 910 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
Science}, pages 203--222, Bad Herrenalb, Germany, September 1994.
Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Moeller98:FMCAD}
Oliver M{\"o}ller and Harald Rue{\ss}.
\newblock Solving bit-vector equations.
\newblock In Ganesh Gopalakrishnan and Phillip Windley, editors, {\em Formal
Methods in Computer-Aided Design (FMCAD '98)}, volume 1522 of {\em Lecture
Notes in Computer Science}, pages 36--48, Palo Alto, CA, November 1998.
Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Tiwari-etal00:CADE}
Ashish Tiwari, Leo Bachmair, and Harald Rue{\ss}.
\newblock Rigid e-unification revisited.
\newblock In David McAllester, editor, {\em Automated Deduction---{CADE-17}},
volume 1831 of {\em Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence}, pages
220--234, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2000. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Rajan95:CAV}
S.~Rajan, N.~Shankar, and M.K. Srivas.
\newblock An integration of model-checking with automated proof checking.
\newblock In Pierre Wolper, editor, {\em Computer-Aided Verification, CAV '95},
volume 939 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, pages 84--97, Liege,
Belgium, June 1995. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{pvs-tables:tacas97}
Sam Owre, John Rushby, and N.~Shankar.
\newblock Integration in {PVS}: Tables, types, and model checking.
\newblock In Ed~Brinksma, editor, {\em Tools and Algorithms for the
Construction and Analysis of Systems {(TACAS '97)}}, volume 1217 of {\em
Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, pages 366--383, Enschede, The
Netherlands, April 1997. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Owre&Ruess00:CAV}
Sam Owre and Harald Rue{\ss}.
\newblock Integrating {WS1S} with {PVS}.
\newblock In E.~A. Emerson and A.~P. Sistla, editors, {\em Computer-Aided
Verification, CAV '2000}, volume 1855 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
Science}, pages 548--551, Chicago, IL, July 2000. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Pfab98:tools}
Friedrich von Henke, Stephan Pfab, Harald Rue{\ss}, and Sam Owre.
\newblock Towards light-weight verification and heavy-weight testing.
\newblock In Rudolph Berghammer and Yassine Lakhnech, editors, {\em Tool
Support for System Specification, Development, and Verification}, Advances in
Computing Science, pages 189--200, Malente, Germany, June 1998.
Springer-Verlag.
\newblock Proceedings published in May 1999.
\bibitem{vonHenke98:tphols}
Friedrich von Henke, Stephan Pfab, Holger Pfeifer, and Harald Rue{\ss}.
\newblock Case studies in meta-level theorem proving.
\newblock In Jim Grundy and Malcolm Newey, editors, {\em Theorem Proving in
Higher Order Logics: 11th International Conference, {TPHOLs '98}}, volume
1479 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, pages 461--478, Canberra,
Australia, September 1998. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{shankar99:eval}
N.~Shankar.
\newblock Efficiently executing {PVS}.
\newblock Project report, Computer Science Laboratory, SRI International, Menlo
Park, CA, November 1999.
\newblock Available at \url{http://www.csl.sri.com/shankar/PVSeval.ps.gz}.
\bibitem{Bensalem96:CAV}
Saddek Bensalem, Yassine Lakhnech, and Hassen Sa{\"\i}di.
\newblock Powerful techniques for the automatic generation of invariants.
\newblock In Rajeev Alur and Thomas~A. Henzinger, editors, {\em Computer-Aided
Verification, CAV '96}, volume 1102 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
Science}, pages 323--335, New Brunswick, NJ, July/August 1996.
Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Bensalem98:CAV}
Saddek Bensalem, Yassine Lakhnech, and Sam Owre.
\newblock Computing abstractions of infinite state systems compositionally and
automatically.
\newblock In Alan~J. Hu and Moshe~Y. Vardi, editors, {\em Computer-Aided
Verification, CAV '98}, volume 1427 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
Science}, pages 319--331, Vancouver, Canada, June 1998. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Abdulla:CAV99}
Parosh~Aziz Abdulla, Aurore Annichini, Saddek Bensalem, Ahmed Bouajjani, Peter
Habermehl, and Yassine Lakhnech.
\newblock Verification of infinite-state systems by combining abstraction and
reachability analysis.
\newblock In Nicolas Halbwachs and Doron Peled, editors, {\em Computer-Aided
Verification, CAV '99}, volume 1633 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
Science}, pages 146--159, Trento, Italy, July 1999. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Rusu&Singerman99}
Vlad Rusu and Eli Singerman.
\newblock On proving safety properties by integrating static analysis, theorem
proving and abstraction.
\newblock In W.~Rance Cleaveland, editor, {\em Tools and Algorithms for the
Construction and Analysis of Systems {(TACAS '99)}}, volume 1579 of {\em
Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, pages 178--192, Amsterdam, The
Netherlands, March 1999. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Graf96:CAV}
Susanne Graf and Hassen Sa{\"\i}di.
\newblock Verifying invariants using theorem proving.
\newblock In Rajeev Alur and Thomas~A. Henzinger, editors, {\em Computer-Aided
Verification, CAV '96}, volume 1102 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
Science}, pages 196--207, New Brunswick, NJ, July/August 1996.
Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Saidi96}
Hassen Sa{\"\i}di.
\newblock A tool for proving invariance properties of concurrent systems
automatically.
\newblock In {\em Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of
Systems {TACAS '96}}, volume 1055 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
pages 412--416, Passau, Germany, March 1996. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Saidi97:CAV}
Hassen Sa{\"\i}di.
\newblock {The Invariant Checker}: Automated deductive verification of reactive
systems.
\newblock In Orna Grumberg, editor, {\em Computer-Aided Verification, CAV '97},
volume 1254 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, pages 436--439,
Haifa, Israel, June 1997. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Saidi&Graf97:CAV}
Hassen Sa{\"\i}di and Susanne Graf.
\newblock Construction of abstract state graphs with {PVS}.
\newblock In Orna Grumberg, editor, {\em Computer-Aided Verification, CAV '97},
volume 1254 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, pages 72--83, Haifa,
Israel, June 1997. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Saidi97:LFM}
Hassen Sa{\"\i}di.
\newblock Automated deductive verification of parallel systems.
\newblock In C.~Michael Holloway and Kelly~J. Hayhurst, editors, {\em LFM' 97:
Fourth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop}, NASA Conference Publication
3356, pages 163--176, Hampton, VA, September 1997. NASA Langley Research
Center.
\newblock Available at \url{http://atb-www.larc.nasa.gov/Lfm97/proceedings/}.
\bibitem{Saidi&Shankar:CAV99}
Hassen Sa{\"\i}di and N.~Shankar.
\newblock Abstract and model check while you prove.
\newblock In Nicolas Halbwachs and Doron Peled, editors, {\em Computer-Aided
Verification, CAV '99}, volume 1633 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
Science}, pages 443--454, Trento, Italy, July 1999. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Saidi00:SAS}
Hassen Sa\"{\i}di.
\newblock Model checking guided abstraction and analysis.
\newblock In Jens Palsberg, editor, {\em Seventh International Static Analysis
Symposium {(SAS'00)}}, volume 1824 of {\em Lecture Notes in Computer
Science}, pages 377--396, Santa Barbara CA, June 2000. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Shankar00:ASM}
Natarajan Shankar.
\newblock Symbolic analysis of transition systems.
\newblock In Yuri Gurevich, Phillip~W. Kutter, Martin Odersky, and Lothar
Thiele, editors, {\em Abstract State Machines: Theory and Applications ({ASM}
2000)}, number 1912 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 287--302,
Monte Verit\`{a}, Switzerland, March 2000. Springer-Verlag.
\bibitem{Shankar00:CONCUR}
Natarajan Shankar.
\newblock Combining theorem proving and model checking through symbolic
analysis.
\newblock In {\em {CONCUR 2000}: Concurrency Theory}, number 1877 in Lecture
Notes in Computer Science, pages 1--16, State College, PA, August 2000.
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\end{thebibliography}
\end{document}
% End of pvs-bib.tex -----------------------------------